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Basic vi Commands
What is vi?
- The default editor that comes with the UNIX operating system is called vi (visual editor). [Alternate editors for UNIX environments include pico and emacs, a product of GNU.]
- The UNIX vi editor is a full screen editor and has two modes of operation:
- Command mode commands which cause action to be taken on the file, and
- Insert mode in which entered text is inserted into the file.
In the command mode, every character typed is a command that does something to the text file being edited; a character typed in the command mode may even cause the vi editor to enter the insert mode. In the insert mode, every character typed is added to the text in the file; pressing the <Esc> (Escape) key turns off the Insert mode.
- While there are a number of vi commands, just a handful of these is usually sufficient for beginning vi users. To assist such users, this Web page contains a sampling of basic vi commands. The most basic and useful commands are marked with an asterisk (* or star) in the tables below. With practice, these commands should become automatic.
- NOTE: Both UNIX and vi are case-sensitive. Be sure not to use a capital letter in place of a lowercase letter; the results will not be what you expect.
To Get Into and Out Of vi
To Start vi
- To use vi on a file, type in vi filename. If the file named filename exists, then the first page (or screen) of the file will be displayed; if the file does not exist, then an empty file and screen are created into which you may enter text.
|*||vi filename||edit filename starting at line 1|
|vi -r filename||recover filename that was being edited when system crashed|
To Exit vi
- Usually the new or modified file is saved when you leave vi. However, it is also possible to quit vi without saving the file.
- Note: The cursor moves to bottom of screen whenever a colon (:) is typed. This type of command is completed by hitting the <Return> (or <Enter>) key.
|*||: x<Return>||quit vi, writing out modified file to file named in original invocation|
|:wq<Return>||quit vi, writing out modified file to file named in original invocation|
|:q<Return>||quit (or exit) vi|
|*||:q!<Return>||quit vi even though latest changes have not been saved for this vi call|
Moving the Cursor
- Unlike many of the PC and MacIntosh editors, the mouse does not move the cursor within the vi editor screen (or window). You must use the the key commands listed below. On some UNIX platforms, the arrow keys may be used as well; however, since vi was designed with the Qwerty keyboard (containing no arrow keys) in mind, the arrow keys sometimes produce strange effects in vi and should be avoided.
- If you go back and forth between a PC environment and a UNIX environment, you may find that this dissimilarity in methods for cursor movement is the most frustrating difference between the two.
- In the table below, the symbol ^ before a letter means that the <Ctrl> key should be held down while the letter key is pressed.
|*||j or <Return>
|move cursor down one line|
|*||k [or up-arrow]||move cursor up one line|
|*||h or <Backspace>
|move cursor left one character|
|*||l or <Space>
|move cursor right one character|
|*||0 (zero)||move cursor to start of current line (the one with the cursor)|
|*||$||move cursor to end of current line|
|w||move cursor to beginning of next word|
|b||move cursor back to beginning of preceding word|
|:0<Return> or 1G||move cursor to first line in file|
|:n<Return> or nG||move cursor to line n|
|:$<Return> or G||move cursor to last line in file|
- The following commands allow the vi editor screen (or window) to move up or down several lines and to be refreshed.
|^f||move forward one screen|
|^b||move backward one screen|
|^d||move down (forward) one half screen|
|^u||move up (back) one half screen|
|^l||redraws the screen|
|^r||redraws the screen, removing deleted lines|
Adding, Changing, and Deleting Text
- Unlike PC editors, you cannot replace or delete text by highlighting it with the mouse. Instead use the commands in the following tables.
- Perhaps the most important command is the one that allows you to back up and undo your last action. Unfortunately, this command acts like a toggle, undoing and redoing your most recent action. You cannot go back more than one step.
|*||u||UNDO WHATEVER YOU JUST DID; a simple toggle|
- The main purpose of an editor is to create, add, or modify text for a file.
Inserting or Adding Text
- The following commands allow you to insert and add text. Each of these commands puts the vi editor into insert mode; thus, the <Esc> key must be pressed to terminate the entry of text and to put the vi editor back into command mode.
|*||i||insert text before cursor, until <Esc> hit|
|I||insert text at beginning of current line, until <Esc> hit|
|*||a||append text after cursor, until <Esc> hit|
|A||append text to end of current line, until <Esc> hit|
|*||o||open and put text in a new line below current line, until <Esc> hit|
|*||O||open and put text in a new line above current line, until <Esc> hit|
- The following commands allow you to modify text.
|*||r||replace single character under cursor (no <Esc> needed)|
|R||replace characters, starting with current cursor position, until <Esc> hit|
|cw||change the current word with new text,
starting with the character under cursor, until <Esc> hit
|cNw||change N words beginning with character under cursor, until <Esc> hit;
e.g., c5w changes 5 words
|C||change (replace) the characters in the current line, until <Esc> hit|
|cc||change (replace) the entire current line, stopping when <Esc> is hit|
|Ncc or cNc||change (replace) the next N lines, starting with the current line,
stopping when <Esc> is hit
- The following commands allow you to delete text.
|*||x||delete single character under cursor|
|Nx||delete N characters, starting with character under cursor|
|dw||delete the single word beginning with character under cursor|
|dNw||delete N words beginning with character under cursor;
e.g., d5w deletes 5 words
|D||delete the remainder of the line, starting with current cursor position|
|*||dd||delete entire current line|
|Ndd or dNd||delete N lines, beginning with the current line;
e.g., 5dd deletes 5 lines
Cutting and Pasting Text
- The following commands allow you to copy and paste text.
|yy||copy (yank, cut) the current line into the buffer|
|Nyy or yNy||copy (yank, cut) the next N lines, including the current line, into the buffer|
|p||put (paste) the line(s) in the buffer into the text after the current line|
- A common occurrence in text editing is to replace one word or phase by another. To locate instances of particular sets of characters (or strings), use the following commands.
|/string||search forward for occurrence of string in text|
|?string||search backward for occurrence of string in text|
|n||move to next occurrence of search string|
|N||move to next occurrence of search string in opposite direction|
Determining Line Numbers
- Being able to determine the line number of the current line or the total number of lines in the file being edited is sometimes useful.
|:.=||returns line number of current line at bottom of screen|
|:=||returns the total number of lines at bottom of screen|
|^g||provides the current line number, along with the total number of lines,
in the file at the bottom of the screen
Saving and Reading Files
These commands permit you to input and output files other than the named file with which you are currently working.
|:r filename<Return>||read file named filename and insert after current line
(the line with cursor)
|:w<Return>||write current contents to file named in original vi call|
|:w newfile<Return>||write current contents to a new file named newfile|
|:12,35w smallfile<Return>||write the contents of the lines numbered 12 through 35 to a new file named smallfile|
|:w! prevfile<Return>||write current contents over a pre-existing file named prevfile|
General Information [ ^ ]
.htaccess Definition1 [ ^ ]
Apache server software provides distributed (i.e., directory-level) configuration via Hypertext Access files. These
htaccess files enable the localized fine-tuning of Apache’s universal system-configuration directives, which are defined in Apache’s main configuration file. The localized
htaccess directives must operate from within a file named
htaccess. The user must have appropriate file permissions to access and/or edit the
htaccess file. Further,
htaccess file permissions should never allow world write access — a secure permissions setting is “644”, which allows universal read access and user-only write access. Finally,
htaccess rules apply to the parent directory and all subdirectories. Thus to apply configuration rules to an entire website, place the
htaccess file in the root directory of the site.
Commenting .htaccess Code [ ^ ]
Comments are essential to maintaining control over any involved portion of code. Comments in
htaccess code are fashioned on a per-line basis, with each line of comments beginning with a pound sign
#. Thus, comments spanning multiple lines in the
htaccess file require multiple pound signs. Further, due to the extremely volatile nature of htaccess voodoo, it is wise to include only alphanumeric characters (and perhaps a few dashes and underscores) in any
It seems hostmonster is cleaning their servers again.
I have been hosting with them for 18 months with few issues. I also referred more then 10 clients to them. The last referral was just yesterday and today January 10th 2009… all I noticed that my web page was taken down without a single warning…
Contact them and asked for a reason. They said: you are using too much server resources. I told them I had this site up and running for the last 6 months without any change in script/visitors/database so what happened?
The referred me to the error log to check. One of the support suggested that I should delete empty databases. I told her you allow us to use 100 db in your plan why would my 33 databases be an issue even if it is empty??
The reinstated my site and I started working on the error log and scripts only 5 minutes later they just took down the whole site and killed my cpanel access. I had to beg to get back my data…
Moving on .. AVOID hostmonster if you are thinking of a website with more than 100 visitors a day. Once you go up bit with visitors they will take your site down.